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NSD RDBMS2 DAY01

  1. 案例1:MySQL一主一从
  2. 案例2:配置一主多从结构
  3. 案例3:配置主从从结构
  4. 案例4:配置半同步复制模式

1 案例1:MySQL一主一从

1.1 问题

1.2 方案

使用2台虚拟机,如图-1所示。其中192.168.4.51是主服务器,另一台192.168.4.52作为从服务器,通过调取主服务器上的binlog日志,在本地重做对应的库、表,实现与主服务器的数据同步。

图-1

主机51和主机52分别运行MySQL数据库服务,且管理员root用户可以本机登录;主机50作为客户机 只需有命令行连接命令mysql即可。

1.3 步骤

实现此案例需要按照如下步骤进行。

步骤一:配置主服务器192.168.4.51

1)启用binlog日志

]# vim /etc/my.cnf
 [mysqld]
  server_id=51			//server_id
log-bin=master51		//日志名
:wq
]# systemctl  restart mysqld

2)用户授权

用户名自定义、客户端地址使用% 或 只指定 从服务器的地址 都可以、只给复制数据的权限即可。

]# mysql -uroot -p密碼
mysql> grant  replication slave on *.*  to repluser@"%" identified  by "123qqq...A";

mysql>quit;

3)查看binlog日志信息

查看日志文件名 和 偏移量位置。

mysql> show master status\G;

*************************** 1. row ***************************

File: master51.000001 //日志名

Position: 441 //偏移量

Binlog_Do_DB:

Binlog_Ignore_DB:

Executed_Gtid_Set:

1 row in set (0.00 sec)

步骤二:配置从服务器192.168.4.52

1)指定server_id

Server_id值可以自定义,但不可以与主服务器相同。

]# vim /etc/my.cnf
                        [mysqld]
                        server_id=52   //server_id值
                        :wq
                        ]# systemctl  restart mysqld  //重启服务

2)确保与主服务器数据一致(如果是使用2台新部署的数据库服务器配置主从同步,此操作可以忽略)

]# mysqldump  -uroot  –p密码   --master-data   数据库名   > /allbak.sql  //在主服务器上备份数据
]# scp  /allbak.sql    root@192.168.4.52:/root/   //将备份文件拷贝给从服务器

mysql> create database 数据库名 ;  //在从服务器上创建与主服务器同名的数据库

]# mysql  -uroot –p密码  数据库名  <  /root/allbak.sql //从服务器使用备份文件恢复数据

]# vim /root/allbak.sql //在从服务器查看备份文件中的binlog日志信息
......
......
CHANGE MASTER TO MASTER_LOG_FILE='master51.000001', MASTER_LOG_POS=441; //日志名与偏移量

3)指定主服务器信息

数据库管理员root本机登录,指定主服务器信息,其中日志文件名和偏移量 写allbak.sql文件记录的。

]# mysql -uroot –p密码     //管理员root 本机登录
mysql> show slave status;  //查看状态信息,还不是从服务器
Empty set (0.00 sec)


mysql> change   master  to //指定主服务器
    -> master_host=“192.168.4.51”,                 //主服务器ip地址
    -> master_user=“repluser”,                        //主服务器授权用户
    -> master_password=“123qqq…A”,            //主服务器授权用户密码
    -> master_log_file=“master51-bin.000001”,//主服务器日志文件
    -> master_log_pos=441;  		        //主服务器日志偏移量


mysql> show slave status\G; //查看状态信息
*************************** 1. row ***************************
               Slave_IO_State: Waiting for master to send event
                  Master_Host: 192.168.4.51  //主服务器ip地址
                  Master_User: repluser
                  Master_Port: 3306
                Connect_Retry: 60
              Master_Log_File: master51.000001
          Read_Master_Log_Pos: 437
               Relay_Log_File: host52relay-bin.000002
                Relay_Log_Pos: 604
        Relay_Master_Log_File: master51.000001
             Slave_IO_Running: Yes		//IO线程yes状态
            Slave_SQL_Running: Yes		//SQL线程yes状态
              Replicate_Do_DB: 
          Replicate_Ignore_DB: 
           Replicate_Do_Table: 
       Replicate_Ignore_Table: 
      Replicate_Wild_Do_Table: 
  Replicate_Wild_Ignore_Table: 
                   Last_Errno: 0
                   Last_Error: 
                 Skip_Counter: 0
          Exec_Master_Log_Pos: 437
              Relay_Log_Space: 812
              Until_Condition: None
               Until_Log_File: 
                Until_Log_Pos: 0
           Master_SSL_Allowed: No
           Master_SSL_CA_File: 
           Master_SSL_CA_Path: 
              Master_SSL_Cert: 
            Master_SSL_Cipher: 
               Master_SSL_Key: 
        Seconds_Behind_Master: 0
Master_SSL_Verify_Server_Cert: No
                Last_IO_Errno: 0
                Last_IO_Error: 
               Last_SQL_Errno: 0
               Last_SQL_Error: 
  Replicate_Ignore_Server_Ids: 
             Master_Server_Id: 50
                  Master_UUID: 4881ee4b-8800-11e9-830a-525400001e32
             Master_Info_File: /var/lib/mysql/master.info
                    SQL_Delay: 0
          SQL_Remaining_Delay: NULL
      Slave_SQL_Running_State: Slave has read all relay log; waiting for more updates
           Master_Retry_Count: 86400
                  Master_Bind: 
      Last_IO_Error_Timestamp: 
     Last_SQL_Error_Timestamp: 
               Master_SSL_Crl: 
           Master_SSL_Crlpath: 
           Retrieved_Gtid_Set: 
            Executed_Gtid_Set: 
                Auto_Position: 0
         Replicate_Rewrite_DB: 
                 Channel_Name: 
           Master_TLS_Version: 
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

步骤三:客户端测试配置

1)在主服务器添加访问数据的连接用户

授权用户对所有数据有增删改查的权限即可

]# mysql –uroot –p密码
mysql> grant select,insert,update,delete on  *.* to  admin@"%" identified by "123qqq...A";
Query OK, 0 rows affected, 1 warning (0.03 sec)

mysql> quit

2)客户端连接主服务器访问数据

在50主机 使用主服务器51的授权用户连接

]# mysql -h192.168.4.51-uadmin -p123qqq...A
mysql> show grants;
+------------------------------------------------------------+
| Grants for admin@%                                         |
+------------------------------------------------------------+
| GRANT SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE ON *.* TO 'admin'@'%' |
+------------------------------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> insert into db3.user(name,uid) values("lili",288); //db3库和user表是主从同步之前主服务器已有的。
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.05 sec)

mysql> insert into db3.user(name,uid) values("lili",288);
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.28 sec)

mysql> insert into db3.user(name,uid) values("lili",288);
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.05 sec)

mysql> select name,uid from db3.user where name="lili";
+------+------+
| name | uid  |
+------+------+
| lili |  288 |
| lili |  288 |
| lili |  288 |
+------+------+
3 rows in set (0.00 sec)

3) 客户端连接从服务器访问数据

客户端50主机使用授权用户连接从服务器可以看到和主服务器同样的数据

]# mysql -h192.168.4.52 –uadmin  -p123qqq…A
mysql> select name,uid from db3.user where name="lili";
+------+------+
| name | uid  |
+------+------+
| lili |  288 |
| lili |  288 |
| lili |  288 |
+------+------+
3 rows in set (0.00 sec)

2 案例2:配置一主多从结构

2.1 问题

2.2 方案

创建1台新虚拟机,配置ip地址为192.168.4.53、运行数据库服务,且数据库管理员root用户可以本机登录。具体结构,如图-2所示。

图-2

2.3 步骤

实现此案例需要按照如下步骤进行。

步骤一:配置从服务器192.168.4.53

1)启用binlog日志

]# vim /etc/my.cnf
 [mysqld]
  server_id=53		//server_id
:wq
]# systemctl  restart mysqld

2)确保与主服务器数据一致

在主服务器51 备份所有数据 并把备份文件拷贝给53服务器。

]# mysqldump -uroot –p123qqq…A –-master-data –B db4 db3 >  /root/twodb.sql
]# scp /root/twodb.sql  root@192.168.4.53:/root/

在53主机使用备份文件恢复数据,并查看备份文件记录的日志名和偏移量

]# mysql -uroot –p123qqq…A  < /root/twodb.sql
]# grep  mater51  /root/twodb.sql
CHANGE MASTER TO MASTER_LOG_FILE='master51.000001', MASTER_LOG_POS=1098; //日志名与偏移量

3)指定主服务器信息

填写备份文件里显示的日志文件名 和 偏移量位置。

mysql> change   master  to //指定主服务器
    -> master_host=“192.168.4.51”,                 //主服务器ip地址
    -> master_user=“repluser”,                        //主服务器授权用户
    -> master_password=“123qqq…A”,            //主服务器授权用户密码
    -> master_log_file=“master51-bin.000001”,//主服务器日志文件
    -> master_log_pos=1098;  		        //主服务器日志偏移量
mysql> start slave;

查看状态信息

]# mysql –uroot –p123qqq…A –e “show slave status\G” | grep –i  yes
            Slave_IO_Running: Yes		//IO线程yes状态
            Slave_SQL_Running: Yes		//SQL线程yes状态
]# mysql –uroot –p123qqq…A –e “show slave status\G” | grep –i  192
Master_Host: 192.168.4.51  //主服务器ip地址

步骤二:客户端测试(192.168.4.50)

1)连接主服务器插入新记录

]# mysql -h192.168.4.51-uadmin -p123qqq...A
mysql> insert into db3.user(name,uid) values("lucy",888); //db3库和user表是主从同步之前主服务器已有的。
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.05 sec)


2)在从服务器本机53 可以查询到新插入的数据

]# mysql  -uroot  –p123qqq…A
mysql> select name,uid from db3.user;
+------+------+
| name | uid  |
+------+------+
| lili |  288 |
| lucy |  888 |
+------+------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)

3 案例3:配置主从从结构

3.1 问题

3.2 方案

使用3台虚拟机,分别运行mysql数据库服务,且管理员root可以本机登录;主机192.168.4.53为主服务器;主机192.168.4.54为从服务器;主机192.168.4.55为从服务器。如图-3所示。

图-3

3.3 步骤

实现此案例需要按照如下步骤进行。

步骤一:环境准备

为了在启用binlog日志及同步之前保持主、从库的一致性,主从同步未配置之前,要保证从库上要有主库上的数据,禁用selinux,关闭防火墙服务,保证物理连接正常

1)关闭防火墙,禁用selinux,已关可忽略:

]# systemctl  stop firewalld
]# setenforce  0 

步骤二:配置主服务器192.168.4.53

2)用户授权

]# mysql -uroot -p123456
mysql> grant   replication  slave   on  *.*  to  yaya@"%"   identified    by  "123qqq…A“;
Query OK, 0 rows affected, 1 warning (0.03 sec)

3)启用binlog日志,修改/etc/my.cnf配置,重新启动MySQL服务程序

指定服务器ID号、允许日志同步:

]# vim /etc/my.cnf
[mysqld]
log_bin=db53 					//启用binlog日志,并指定文件名前缀
server_id=53				    //指定服务器ID号

4)重启mysql服务:

]# systemctl  restart   mysqld

5)确保/var/lib/mysql下面有两个文件:

]#  ls  /var/lib/mysql/db51.*
/var/lib/mysql/db53.000001  /var/lib/mysql/db53.index

6)查看主服务正在使用的日志信息

查看主服务器状态,记录下当前的日志文件名、偏移的位置(下面SLAVE发起复制时需要用到):

    mysql> show  master  status;
+-------------+----------+--------------+------------------+-------------------+
| File        | Position | Binlog_Do_DB | Binlog_Ignore_DB | Executed_Gtid_Set |
+-------------+----------+--------------+------------------+-------------------+
| db53.000001 |437       |      |                  |                   |
+-------------+----------+--------------+------------------+-------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

步骤三:配置从服务器192.168.4.54

1)在服务器192.168.4.53上做用户授权(数据同步使用的连接用户)

]# mysql -u root -p123456
mysql> grant  replication slave on *.*  to  user55@”%” identified by  “654321” ;

2)修改/etc/my.cnf配置,启用binlog日志,指定server_id 和 允许级联复制

]# vim /etc/my.cnf 
[mysqld]
server_id=54                  
log-bin=db54
log_slave_updates                          //允许级联复制

3)配置完成后,重启mysql服务:

]# systemctl restart mysqld

4)确保/var/lib/mysql下面有两个文件:

]# ls /var/lib/mysql/db52.*
/var/lib/mysql/db54.000001   /var/lib/mysql/db54.index

5)查看正在使用的日志信息

]# mysql -uroot -p123456
mysql>  show  master  status;
+-------------+----------+--------------+------------------+-------------------+
| File        | Position | Binlog_Do_DB | Binlog_Ignore_DB | Executed_Gtid_Set |
+-------------+----------+--------------+------------------+-------------------+
|db54.000001  |      154 |                                                          
+-------------+----------+--------------+------------------+-------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)    //查看日志文件名、偏移的位置

6)验证主服务器的的授权用户

]# mysql -h192.168.4.53 -uyaya -p123456

mysql: [Warning] Using a password on the command line interface can be insecure.

Welcome to the MySQL monitor. Commands end with ; or \g.

Your MySQL connection id is 4

Server version: 5.7.17-log MySQL Community Server (GPL)

Copyright (c) 2000, 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its

affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective

owners.

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

mysql>                                //验证成功

7)通过change master语句指定master服务器的IP地址、同步用户名/密码、起始日志文件、偏移位置(参考master上的状态输出):

]# mysql -uroot -p123456

mysql> change master to

-> master_host="192.168.4.53”;

-> master_user="yaya",

-> master_password="123456",

-> master_log_file="db53.000001”;

-> master_log_pos=437;

Query OK, 0 rows affected, 2 warnings (0.43 sec)

8)启动slave进程

mysql> start slave;

Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.03 sec)

9)查看进程状态信息,通过show slave status语句可查看从服务器状态,确认其中的IO线程、SQL线程正常运行,才能成功同步,IO线程和SQL线程必须是Yes

mysql> show slave status \G;

*************************** 1. row ***************************

Slave_IO_State: Waiting for master to send event

                  Master_Host: 192.168.4.53 //主服务器IP地址

Master_User: yaya

Master_Port: 3306

Connect_Retry: 60

Master_Log_File: db53.000001

Read_Master_Log_Pos: 437

Relay_Log_File: db54-relay-bin.000001

Relay_Log_Pos: 315

Relay_Master_Log_File: db54.000001

             Slave_IO_Running: Yes	//IO线程状态YES
            Slave_SQL_Running: Yes  //SQL线程状态YES

Replicate_Do_DB:

Replicate_Ignore_DB:

Replicate_Do_Table:

Replicate_Ignore_Table:

Replicate_Wild_Do_Table:

Replicate_Wild_Ignore_Table:

Last_Errno: 0

Last_Error:

Skip_Counter: 0

Exec_Master_Log_Pos: 437

Relay_Log_Space: 521

Until_Condition: None

Until_Log_File:

Until_Log_Pos: 0

Master_SSL_Allowed: No

Master_SSL_CA_File:

Master_SSL_CA_Path:

Master_SSL_Cert:

Master_SSL_Cipher:

Master_SSL_Key:

Seconds_Behind_Master: 0

Master_SSL_Verify_Server_Cert: No

Last_IO_Errno: 0

Last_IO_Error:

Last_SQL_Errno: 0

Last_SQL_Error:

Replicate_Ignore_Server_Ids:

Master_Server_Id: 51

Master_UUID: 81a13101-aa66-11e8-ad11-525400019e62

Master_Info_File: /var/lib/mysql/master.info

SQL_Delay: 0

SQL_Remaining_Delay: NULL

Slave_SQL_Running_State: Slave has read all relay log; waiting for more updates

Master_Retry_Count: 86400

Master_Bind:

Last_IO_Error_Timestamp:

Last_SQL_Error_Timestamp:

Master_SSL_Crl:

Master_SSL_Crlpath:

Retrieved_Gtid_Set:

Executed_Gtid_Set:

Auto_Position: 0

Replicate_Rewrite_DB:

Channel_Name:

Master_TLS_Version:

1 row in set (0.00 sec)

步骤四:配置从服务器192.168.4.55

1)验证主库的授权用户

]# mysql  -h192.168.4.54  -uuser54 -p654321
mysql: [Warning] Using a password on the command line interface can be insecure.
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 7
Server version: 5.7.17-log MySQL Community Server (GPL)

Copyright (c) 2000, 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

mysql>                  //验证成功

2)指定server_id

[mysqld]
server_id=55

3)重新启动服务

]# systemctl restart mysqld

4)管理员登录指定主库信息

]# mysql -uroot -p123456
mysql> change  master  to 
    -> master_host="192.168.4.54”;
    -> master_user="user55”;
    -> master_password="654321",
    -> master_log_file=" db54.000001”;
    -> master_log_pos=154;
Query OK, 0 rows affected, 2 warnings (0.37 sec)

5)启动slave进程

mysql>  start  slave;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.04 sec)

6)查看进程状态信息

mysql> show slave status\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
               Slave_IO_State: Waiting for master to send event
                  Master_Host: 192.168.4.54
                  Master_User: user55
                  Master_Port: 3306
                Connect_Retry: 60
              Master_Log_File: db54.000001
          Read_Master_Log_Pos: 154
               Relay_Log_File: db55-relay-bin.000001
                Relay_Log_Pos: 315
        Relay_Master_Log_File: db54.000001
             Slave_IO_Running: Yes
            Slave_SQL_Running: Yes

步骤五:客户端验证配置

在主库授权访问数据的连接用户;户端连接主库执行与权限匹配的sql操作;

授权用户连接第1台从库,可以看到主库的数据;权用户连接第2台从库,可以看到主库的数据

1)在主服务器上在主库上授权访问gamedb库的用户

]# mysql -uroot  -p123456
mysql> grant  all  on  gamedb.*   to   dada@"%"  identified by  "123456";
Query OK, 0 rows affected, 1 warning (0.03 sec)

2)客户端使用授权用户连接主库,建库、表、插入记录

]# mysql  -h192.168.4.53    -udada  -p123456
Welcome to the MariaDB monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 7
Server version: 5.7.17-log MySQL Community Server (GPL)

Copyright (c) 2000, 2017, Oracle, MariaDB Corporation Ab and others.

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

MySQL [(none)]>   //验证成功
MySQL [(none)]> create  database  gamedb;   //创建测试库
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.04 sec)
MySQL [(none)]> create  table  gamedb.t1(id int);   //在gamedb下创建t1表
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.17 sec)
MySQL [(none)]> insert into  gamedb.t1 values(8888);   //在t1表中插入数值
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.22 sec)

3)客户端使用授权用户连接2台从库时,也可以看到主库上新的库表记录

]# mysql  -h192.168.4.54    -udada  -p123456  //验证54主机的状态
Welcome to the MariaDB monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 10
Server version: 5.7.17-log MySQL Community Server (GPL)

Copyright (c) 2000, 2017, Oracle, MariaDB Corporation Ab and others.

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.
MySQL [(none)]> select  * from gamedb.t1;         //查询插入的表格
+------+
| id   |
+------+ 
| 8888 |
+------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)
MySQL [(none)]> exit
[root@room9pc01 ~]# mysql  -h192.168.4.55   -udada  -p123456 //验证55主机的状态
Welcome to the MariaDB monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 6
Server version: 5.7.17 MySQL Community Server (GPL)

Copyright (c) 2000, 2017, Oracle, MariaDB Corporation Ab and others.

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

MySQL [(none)]> select  * from gamedb.t1;
+------+
| id   |
+------+
| 8888 |
+------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

4 案例4:配置半同步复制模式

4.1 问题

4.2 方案

以案例2从服务器192.168.4.54 为例演示配置,54主机既做主服务器又做从服务器,所以两种角色的半同步复制模块和功能都要启用。

4.3 步骤

实现此案例需要按照如下步骤进行。

步骤一:查看是否允许动态加载模块。

1)查看是否允许动态加载模块(默认允许)

mysql> show  variables  like  'have_dynamic_loading';
+----------------------+-------+
| Variable_name        | Value |
+----------------------+-------+
| have_dynamic_loading | YES   |
+----------------------+-------+
1 row in set (0.01 sec)

2)命令行加载插件

mysql> install  plugin   rpl_semi_sync_master   SONAME   ”semisync_master.so”; //加载master模块
mysql> install  plugin   rpl_semi_sync_slave SONAME  'semisync_slave.so'; //加载slave模块

查看模块是否安装成功:

mysql> select  plugin_name, plugin_status from  information_schema.plugins  where plugin_name like '%semi%';  
+----------------------+---------------+
| PLUGIN_NAME          | PLUGIN_STATUS |
+----------------------+---------------+
| rpl_semi_sync_master | ACTIVE         |		//模块安装成功
| rpl_semi_sync_slave  | ACTIVE         |		
+----------------------+---------------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)

3)启用半同步复制 (在安装完插件后,半同步复制默认是关闭的)

mysql> set  global rpl_semi_sync_master_enabled = 1; //启用master半同步复制
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
mysql> set  global rpl_semi_sync_slave_enabled = 1; //启用slave半同步复制
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

查看半同步复制模式是否启用:

mysql>  show  variables  like  "rpl_semi_sync_%_enabled";
+------------------------------+-------+
| Variable_name                | Value |
+------------------------------+-------+
| rpl_semi_sync_master_enabled | ON    |	//模块已启用
| rpl_semi_sync_slave_enabled  | ON    |
+------------------------------+-------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)

4)修改配置文件,永久启用半同步复制

 [root@master51 ~]# vim /etc/my.cnf
[mysqld]
plugin-load="rpl_semi_sync_master=semisync_master.so;rpl_semi_sync_slave=semisync_slave.so"
rpl-semi-sync-master-enabled = 1
rpl-semi-sync-slave-enabled = 1
:wq

5)重启数据库服务,并查看状态信息

]# mystemctl  restart mysqld
]# mysql -uroot -p123qqq...A
mysql> select  plugin_name, plugin_status from  information_schema.plugins  where plugin_name like '%semi%';
+----------------------+---------------+
| plugin_name          | plugin_status |
+----------------------+---------------+
| rpl_semi_sync_master | ACTIVE        | //模块已加载
| rpl_semi_sync_slave  | ACTIVE        |
+----------------------+---------------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql>  show  variables  like  "rpl_semi_sync_%_enabled";
+------------------------------+-------+
| Variable_name                | Value |
+------------------------------+-------+
| rpl_semi_sync_master_enabled | ON    | //模式已启用
| rpl_semi_sync_slave_enabled  | ON    |
+------------------------------+-------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)