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NSD RDBM1 DAY04

  1. 案例1: 用户授权
  2. 案例2:root密码
  3. 案例3:数据备份与恢复
  4. 案例4:binlog日志
  5. 案例5:使用binlog日志恢复数据

1 案例1: 用户授权

1.1 问题

1.2 步骤

实现此案例需要按照如下步骤进行。

步骤一:用户授权

1)允许root从192.168.4.0/24访问,对所有库表有完全权限,密码为123qqq…A

授权之前,从192.168.4.0/24网段的客户机访问时,将会被拒绝:

[root@host120 ~]# mysql -u root -p -h 192.168.4.10
Enter password:  								//输入正确的密码
ERROR 2003 (HY000): Host '192.168.4.120' is not allowed to connect to this MySQL server

授权操作,此处可设置与从localhost访问时不同的密码:

mysql> GRANT all ON *.* TO root@'192.168.4.%' IDENTIFIED BY 'tarena';
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

再次从192.168.4.0/24网段的客户机访问时,输入正确的密码后可登入:

[root@host120 ~]# mysql -u root -p -h 192.168.4.10
Enter password:
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 20
Server version: 5.7.17 MySQL Community Server (GPL)

Copyright (c) 2000, 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

mysql>

从网络登入后,测试新建一个库、查看所有库:

mysql> CREATE DATABASE rootdb;  				//创建新库rootdb
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.06 sec)

mysql> SHOW DATABASES;
+--------------------+
| Database           |
+--------------------+
| information_schema |
| home               |
| mysql              |
| performance_schema |
| rootdb             |                         //新建的rootdb库
| sys                |
| userdb             |
+--------------------+
7 rows in set (0.01 sec)

2)在Mysql服务器上建立一个管理账号dba007,对所有库完全控制,并赋予其授权的权限新建账号并授权:

mysql> GRANT all ON *.* TO dba007@localhost
    -> IDENTIFIED BY '123qqq…A '
    -> WITH GRANT OPTION;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

查看dba007的权限:

mysql> SHOW GRANTS FOR dba007@localhost;
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Grants for dba007@localhost                                           |
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------+
| GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO 'dba007'@'localhost' WITH GRANT OPTION |
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

3)撤销root从本机访问的权限,然后恢复

注意:如果没有事先建立其他管理账号,请不要轻易撤销root用户的本地访问权限,否则恢复起来会比较困难,甚至不得不重装数据库。

撤销root对数据库的操作权限:

mysql> REVOKE all ON *.* FROM root@localhost;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
mysql> SHOW GRANTS FOR root@localhost;
+--------------------------------------------------------------+
| Grants for root@localhost                                    |
+--------------------------------------------------------------+
| GRANT USAGE ON *.* TO 'root'@'localhost' WITH GRANT OPTION   |
| GRANT PROXY ON ''@'' TO 'root'@'localhost' WITH GRANT OPTION |
+--------------------------------------------------------------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)

验证撤销后的权限效果:

mysql> exit  									//退出当前MySQL连接
Bye
[root@dbsvr1 ~]# mysql -u root -p  				//重新以root从本地登入
Enter password:
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 6
Server version: 5.6.15 MySQL Community Server (GPL)

Copyright (c) 2000, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

mysql> CREATE DATABASE newdb2014;  				//尝试新建库失败
ERROR 1044 (42000): Access denied for user 'root'@'localhost' to database 'newdb2014'
mysql> DROP DATABASE rootdb;  						//尝试删除库失败
ERROR 1044 (42000): Access denied for user 'root'@'localhost' to database 'rootdb'

尝试以当前的root用户恢复权限,也会失败(无权更新授权表):

mysql> GRANT all ON *.* TO root@localhost IDENTIFIED BY '1234567';
ERROR 1045 (28000): Access denied for user 'root'@'localhost' (using password: YES)

怎么办呢?

退出当前MySQL连接,以上一步添加的管理账号dba007登入:

mysql> exit  										//退出当前MySQL连接
Bye
[root@dbsvr1 ~]# mysql -u dba007 -p   				//以另一个管理账号登入
Enter password:
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 24
Server version: 5.7.17 MySQL Community Server (GPL)

Copyright (c) 2000, 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

由管理账号dba007重新为root添加本地访问权限:

mysql> GRANT all ON *.* TO root@localhost IDENTIFIED BY '1234567';
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
mysql> SHOW GRANTS FOR root@localhost;  			//查看恢复结果
+---------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Grants for root@localhost                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------+
| GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO 'root'@'localhost' WITH GRANT OPTION |
| GRANT PROXY ON ''@'' TO 'root'@'localhost' WITH GRANT OPTION        |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)

退出,再重新以root登入,测试一下看看,权限又恢复了吧:

mysql> exit  									//退出当前MySQL连接
Bye
[root@dbsvr1 ~]# mysql -u root -p 				//重新以root登入
Enter password:
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 25
Server version: 5.7.17 MySQL Community Server (GPL)

Copyright (c) 2000, 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

mysql> CREATE DATABASE newdb2014;  				//成功创建新库
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)

4)允许webuser从任意客户机登录,只对webdb库有完全权限,密码为 123qqq…A

添加授权:

mysql> GRANT all ON webdb.* TO webuser@'%' IDENTIFIED BY '888888';
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

查看授权结果:

mysql> SHOW GRANTS FOR webuser@'%';
+----------------------------------------------------+
| Grants for webuser@%                               |
+----------------------------------------------------+
| GRANT USAGE ON *.* TO 'webuser'@'%'                |
| GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON `webdb`.* TO 'webuser'@'%' |
+----------------------------------------------------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)

5)撤销webuser的完全权限,改为查询权限

撤销所有权限:

mysql> REVOKE all ON webdb.* FROM webuser@'%';
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

只赋予查询权限:

mysql> GRANT select ON webdb.* TO webuser@'%';
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

确认授权更改结果:

mysql> SHOW GRANTS FOR webuser@'%';
+--------------------------------------------+
| Grants for webuser@%                       |
+--------------------------------------------+
| GRANT USAGE ON *.* TO 'webuser'@'%'        |
| GRANT SELECT ON `webdb`.* TO 'webuser'@'%' |
+--------------------------------------------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)

2 案例2:root密码

2.1 问题

具体要求如下:

2.2 步骤

实现此案例需要按照如下步骤进行。

步骤一:恢复管理员root密码

1)首先停止已运行的MySQL服务程序

[root@dbsvr1 ~]# systemctl  stop mysqld.service   		//停止服务
[root@dbsvr1 ~]# systemctl  status mysqld.service  	    //确认状态
mysqld.service - MySQL Server
   Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/mysqld.service; enabled)
   Active: inactive (dead) since 五 2017-04-07 23:01:38 CST; 21s ago
     Docs: man:mysqld(8)
           http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/en/using-systemd.html
  Process: 20260 ExecStart=/usr/sbin/mysqld --daemonize --pid-file=/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.pid $MYSQLD_OPTS (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)
  Process: 20238 ExecStartPre=/usr/bin/mysqld_pre_systemd (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)
 Main PID: 20262 (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)

2)然后跳过授权表启动MySQL服务程序

这一步主要利用mysqld的 --skip-grant-tables选项

修改my.cnf配置,添加 skip_grant_tables=1启动设置:

[root@dbsvr1 ~]# vim /etc/my.cnf
[mysqld]
skip_grant_tables
.. ..
[root@dbsvr1 ~]# systemctl  start mysqld.service

[root@dbsvr1 ~]# service mysql status
mysqld.service - MySQL Server
   Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/mysqld.service; enabled)
   Active: active (running) since 五 2017-04-07 23:40:20 CST; 40s ago
     Docs: man:mysqld(8)
           http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/en/using-systemd.html
  Process: 11698 ExecStart=/usr/sbin/mysqld --daemonize --pid-file=/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.pid $MYSQLD_OPTS (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)
  Process: 11676 ExecStartPre=/usr/bin/mysqld_pre_systemd (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)
 Main PID: 11701 (mysqld)
   CGroup: /system.slice/mysqld.service
           └─11701 /usr/sbin/mysqld --daemonize --pid-file=/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.p...

3)使用mysql命令连接到MySQL服务,重设root的密码

由于前一步启动的MySQL服务跳过了授权表,所以可以root从本机直接登录

[root@dbsvr1 ~]# mysql  //直接回车即可
                                
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 4
Server version: 5.7.17 MySQL Community Server (GPL)

Copyright (c) 2000, 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

mysql> 

进入 mysql> 环境后,通过修改mysql库中user表的相关记录,重设root用户从本机登录的密码:

mysql> UPDATE mysql.user SET authentication_string=PASSWORD('123qqq…A')
    -> WHERE user='root' AND host='localhost';  			//重设root的密码
Query OK, 1 row affected, 1 warning (0.00 sec)
Rows matched: 1  Changed: 1  Warnings: 1
mysql> FLUSH PRIVILEGES;  								//刷新授权表
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec)
mysql> exit  											//退出mysql> 环境
Bye

通过执行“FLUSH PRIVILEGES;”可使授权表立即生效,对于正常运行的MySQL服务,也可以用上述方法来修改密码,不用重启服务。本例中因为是恢复密码,最好重启MySQL服务程序,所以上述“FLUSH PRIVILEGES;”操作可跳过。

4)重新以正常方式启动MySQL服务程序,验证新密码

如果前面是修改/etc/my.cnf配置的方法来跳过授权表,则重置root密码后,应去除相应的设置以恢复正常:

[root@dbsvr1 ~]# vim /etc/my.cnf
[mysqld]
#skip_grant_tables=1  							//注释掉或删除此行
.. ..

按正常方式,通过mysql脚本重启服务即可:

[root@dbsvr1 ~]# systemctl  restart mysqld.service

验证无密码登录时,将会被拒绝:

[root@dbsvr1 ~]# mysql -u root
Enter password:                            //没有跳过授权表回车会报错
ERROR 1045 (28000): Access denied for user 'root'@'localhost' (using password: NO)

只有提供重置后的新密码,才能成功登入:

[root@dbsvr1 ~]# mysql -uroot –p123qqq…A
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 4
Server version: 5.7.17 MySQL Community Server (GPL)

Copyright (c) 2000, 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

mysql> 

步骤二:重置管理员root密码

正常的前提是:已知当前MySQL管理用户(root)的密码。

1)方法1,在Shell命令行下设置

使用mysqladmin管理工具,需要验证旧的密码。比如,以下操作将会把root的密码设置为 1234567:

[root@dbsvr1 ~]# mysqladmin -uroot -p password 'A…qqq321'					
Enter password:                                   //验证原来的密码
mysqladmin: [Warning] Using a password on the command line interface can be insecure.
Warning: Since password will be sent to server in plain text, use ssl connection to ensure password safety.                              //提示明文修改不安全,并不是报错
[root@dbsvr1 ~]# mysql -uroot –pA…qqq321  //使用修改后的密码登录
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 4
Server version: 5.7.17 MySQL Community Server (GPL)

Copyright (c) 2000, 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

mysql> 

步骤三:修改管理员root密码的其他方法

1)方法1,以root登入mysql> 后,使用SET PASSWORD指令设置

这个与新安装MySQL-server后首次修改密码时要求的方式相同,平时也可以用:

mysql> SET PASSWORD FOR root@localhost=PASSWORD('1234567');
Query OK, 0 rows affected, 1 warning (0.00 sec)

2)方法2,以root登入mysql> 后,使用GRANT授权工具设置

这个是最常见的用户授权方式(下一节会做更多授权的练习):

mysql> GRANT all ON *.* TO root@localhost IDENTIFIED BY '1234567';
Query OK, 0 rows affected, 1 warning (0.00 sec)

3)方法3,以root登入mysql> 后,使用UPDATE更新相应的表记录

这种方法与恢复密码时的操作相同:

mysql> UPDATE mysql.user SET authentication_string=PASSWORD('1234567')
    -> WHERE user='root' AND host='localhost';  		//重设root的密码
Query OK, 0 rows affected, 1 warning (0.00 sec)
Rows matched: 1  Changed: 0  Warnings: 1
mysql> FLUSH PRIVILEGES;  								//刷新授权表
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

在上述方法中,需要特别注意:当MySQL服务程序以 skip-grant-tables 选项启动时,如果未执行“FLUSH PRIVILEGES;”操作,是无法通过SET PASSWORD或者GRANT方式来设置密码的。比如,验证这两种方式时,都会看到ERROR 1290的出错提示:

mysql> SET PASSWORD FOR root@localhost=PASSWORD('1234567');
ERROR 1290 (HY000): The MySQL server is running with the --skip-grant-tables option so it cannot execute this statement

mysql> GRANT all ON *.* TO root@localhost IDENTIFIED BY '1234567';
ERROR 1290 (HY000): The MySQL server is running with the --skip-grant-tables option so it cannot execute this statement

3 案例3:数据备份与恢复

3.1 问题

具体要求如下:

3.2 步骤

实现此案例需要按照如下步骤进行。

步骤一:练习mysqldump命令的使用

1)备份MySQL服务器上的所有库

将所有的库备份为mysql-all.sql文件:

[root@dbsvr1 ~]# mysqldump -u root -p --all-databases > /root/alldb.sql
Enter password:  								//验证口令
[root@dbsvr1 mysql]# file /root/alldb.sql  		//确认备份文件类型
/root/alldb.sql: UTF-8 Unicode English text, with very long lines

查看备份文件alldb.sql的部分内容:

[root@dbsvr1 ~]# grep -vE '^/|^-|^$' /root/alldb.sql | head -15
CREATE DATABASE /*!32312 IF NOT EXISTS*/ `home` /*!40100 DEFAULT CHARACTER SET latin1 */;
USE `home`;
DROP TABLE IF EXISTS `biao01`;
CREATE TABLE `biao01` (
  `id` int(2) NOT NULL,
  `name` varchar(8) DEFAULT NULL
) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=latin1;
LOCK TABLES `biao01` WRITE;
UNLOCK TABLES;
DROP TABLE IF EXISTS `biao02`;
CREATE TABLE `biao02` (
  `id` int(4) NOT NULL,
  `name` varchar(8) DEFAULT NULL,
  PRIMARY KEY (`id`)
) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=latin1;
.. ..

注意:若数据库都使用MyISAM存储引擎,可以采用冷备份的方式,直接复制对应的数据库目录即可;恢复时重新复制回来就行。

2)只备份指定的某一个库

将userdb库备份为userdb.sql文件:

[root@dbsvr1 ~]# mysqldump -u root -p userdb > userdb.sql
Enter password:  								//验证口令

查看备份文件userdb.sql的部分内容:

[root@dbsvr1 ~]# grep -vE '^/|^-|^$' /root/userdb.sql
DROP TABLE IF EXISTS `stu_info`;
CREATE TABLE `stu_info` (
  `name` varchar(12) NOT NULL,
  `gender` enum('boy','girl') DEFAULT 'boy',
  `age` int(3) NOT NULL
) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=latin1;
LOCK TABLES `stu_info` WRITE;
.. ..

3)同时备份指定的多个库

同时备份mysql、userdb库,保存为mysql+userdb.sql文件:

[root@dbsvr1 ~]# mysqldump -u root -p -B mysql  userdb > mysql+test+userdb.sql
Enter password:  								//验证口令

查看备份文件userdb.sql的部分内容:

[root@dbsvr1 ~]# grep '^CREATE DATA' /root/mysql+userdb.sql
CREATE DATABASE /*!32312 IF NOT EXISTS*/ `mysql` /*!40100 DEFAULT CHARACTER SET latin1 */;
CREATE DATABASE /*!32312 IF NOT EXISTS*/ `userdb` /*!40100 DEFAULT CHARACTER SET latin1 */;

步骤二:使用mysql 命令恢复删除的数据

以恢复userdb库为例,可参考下列操作。通常不建议直接覆盖旧库,而是采用建立新库并导入逻辑备份的方式执行恢复,待新库正常后即可废弃或删除旧库。

1)创建名为userdb2的新库

mysql> CREATE DATABASE userdb2;
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)

2)导入备份文件,在新库中重建表及数据

[root@dbsvr1 ~]# mysql -u root -p userdb2 < /root/userdb.sql
Enter password:  								//验证口令

3)确认新库正常,启用新库

mysql> USE userdb2;  							//切换到新库
Reading table information for completion of table and column names
You can turn off this feature to get a quicker startup with -A

Database changed
mysql> SELECT sn,username,uid,gid,homedir  		//查询数据,确认可用
    -> FROM userlist LIMIT 10;
+----+----------+-----+-----+-----------------+
| sn | username | uid | gid | homedir         |
+----+----------+-----+-----+-----------------+
|  1 | root     |   0 |   0 | /root           |
|  2 | bin      |   1 |   1 | /bin            |
|  3 | daemon   |   2 |   2 | /sbin           |
|  4 | adm      |   3 |   4 | /var/adm        |
|  5 | lp       |   4 |   7 | /var/spool/lpd  |
|  6 | sync     |   5 |   0 | /sbin           |
|  7 | shutdown |   6 |   0 | /sbin           |
|  8 | halt     |   7 |   0 | /sbin           |
|  9 | mail     |   8 |  12 | /var/spool/mail |
| 10 | operator |  11 |   0 | /root           |
+----+----------+-----+-----+-----------------+
10 rows in set (0.00 sec)

4)废弃或删除旧库

mysql> DROP DATABASE userdb;
Query OK, 2 rows affected (0.09 sec)

4 案例4:binlog日志

4.1 问题

启用binlog日志,具体要求如下:

4.2 步骤

实现此案例需要按照如下步骤进行。

步骤一:启用binlog日志

1)修改配置文件,并重启服务。

[root@dbsvr1 ~]# vim  /etc/my.cnf
[mysqld]
	server_id=1  //指定server_id
log-bin=/mylog/db50  //指定日志目录及名称                           
:wq
[root@dbsvr1 ~]# mkdir  /mylog   //创建目录
[root@dbsvr1 ~]# chown  mysql  /mylog   //修改所有者
[root@dbsvr1 ~]# systemctl  restart mysqld.service  //重启服务

2)查看日志信息

[root@dbsvr1 ~]# 
[root@localhost ~]# mysql -uroot -p123qqq...A //管理员登录
mysql: [Warning] Using a password on the command line interface can be insecure.
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 3
Server version: 5.7.17-log MySQL Community Server (GPL)

Copyright (c) 2000, 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

mysql> show master status; //查看日志信息
+-------------+----------+--------------+------------------+-------------------+
| File        | Position | Binlog_Do_DB | Binlog_Ignore_DB | Executed_Gtid_Set |
+-------------+----------+--------------+------------------+-------------------+
| db50.000001 |      154 |              |                  |                   |
+-------------+----------+--------------+------------------+-------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

mysql>

3)手动创建3个新的日志文件

mysql>
mysql> flush logs;  //刷新日志
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.14 sec)

mysql> flush logs; //刷新日志
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.11 sec)

mysql> flush logs; //刷新日志
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.12 sec)

mysql> system ls /mylog/  //查看日志文件
db50.000001  db50.000002  db50.000003  db50.000004  db50.index
mysql> 
mysql> show master status; //查看日志信息
+-------------+----------+--------------+------------------+-------------------+
| File        | Position | Binlog_Do_DB | Binlog_Ignore_DB | Executed_Gtid_Set |
+-------------+----------+--------------+------------------+-------------------+
| db50.000004 |      154 |              |                  |                   |
+-------------+----------+--------------+------------------+-------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

mysql>

4)删除编号3之前的日志文件

 mysql>

mysql> purge  master  logs  to  "db50.000003"; //删除日志
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.05 sec)

mysql> system ls /mylog/    //查看日志文件
db50.000003  db50.000004  db50.index
mysql> 
mysql> system cat /mylog/db50.index //查看索引文件
/mylog/db50.000003
/mylog/db50.000004
mysql>

5 案例5:使用binlog日志恢复数据

5.1 问题

利用binlog恢复库表,要求如下:

5.2 步骤

实现此案例需要按照如下步骤进行。

步骤一:启用binlog日志

1)调整/etc/my.cnf配置,并重启服务

[root@dbsvr1 ~]# vim  /etc/my.cnf
[mysqld]
server_id=1  //定义server_id
log-bin=mysql-bin  //定义日志名
binlog_format=”mixed”     //定义日志格式                           
[root@dbsvr1 ~]# systemctl  restart mysqld.service //重启服务

2)确认binlog日志文件

新启用binlog后,每次启动MySQl服务都会新生成一份日志文件:

[root@dbsvr1 ~]# ls /var/lib/mysql/mysql-bin.*
/var/lib/mysql/mysql-bin.000001  /var/lib/mysql/mysql-bin.index

其中mysql-bin.index文件记录了当前保持的二进制文件列表:

[root@dbsvr1 ~]# cat /var/lib/mysql/mysql-bin.index
./mysql-bin.000001

重启MySQL服务程序,或者执行SQL操作“FLUSH LOGS;”,会生成一份新的日志:

[root@dbsvr1 ~]# ls /var/lib/mysql/mysql-bin.*
/var/lib/mysql/mysql-bin.000001  /var/lib/mysql/mysql-bin.index
/var/lib/mysql/mysql-bin.000002

[root@dbsvr1 ~]# cat /var/lib/mysql/mysql-bin.index
./mysql-bin.000001
./mysql-bin.000002

步骤二:利用binlog日志重做数据库操作

1)执行数据库表添加操作

创建db1·库tb1表,表结构自定义:

mysql> CREATE DATABASE db1;
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.05 sec)

mysql> USE db1;
Database changed
mysql> CREATE TABLE tb1(
    -> id int(4) NOT NULL,name varchar(24)
    -> );
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.28 sec)

插入3条表记录:

mysql> INSERT INTO tb1 VALUES
    -> (1,'Jack'),
    -> (2,'Kenthy'),
    -> (3,'Bob');
Query OK, 3 rows affected (0.12 sec)
Records: 3  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0

确认插入的表记录数据:

mysql> SELECT * FROM tb1;
+----+--------+
| id | name   |
+----+--------+
|  1 | Jack   |
|  2 | Kenthy |
|  3 | Bob    |
+----+--------+
3 rows in set (0.00 sec)

2)删除前一步添加的3条表记录

执行删除所有表记录操作:

mysql> DELETE FROM tb1;
Query OK, 3 rows affected (0.09  sec)

确认删除结果:

mysql> SELECT * FROM tb1;
Empty set (0.00 sec)

步骤三:通过binlog日志恢复表记录

binlog会记录所有的数据库、表更改操作,所以可在必要的时候重新执行以前做过的一部分数据操作,但对于启用binlog之前已经存在的库、表数据将不适用。

根据上述“恢复被删除的3条表记录”的需求,应通过mysqlbinlog工具查看相关日志文件,找到删除这些表记录的时间点,只要恢复此前的SQL操作(主要是插入那3条记录的操作)即可。

1)查看mysql-bin.000002日志内容

[root@dbsvr1 ~]# mysqlbinlog /var/lib/mysql/mysql-bin.000002
/*!50530 SET @@SESSION.PSEUDO_SLAVE_MODE=1*/;
/*!50003 SET @OLD_COMPLETION_TYPE=@@COMPLETION_TYPE,COMPLETION_TYPE=0*/;
DELIMITER /*!*/;
# at 4
#170412 12:05:32 server id 1  end_log_pos 123 CRC32 0x6d8c069c  Start: binlog v 4, server v 5.7.17-log created 170412 12:05:32 at startup
# Warning: this binlog is either in use or was not closed properly.
ROLLBACK/*!*/;
BINLOG '
jKftWA8BAAAAdwAAAHsAAAABAAQANS43LjE3LWxvZwAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAACMp+1YEzgNAAgAEgAEBAQEEgAAXwAEGggAAAAICAgCAAAACgoKKioAEjQA
AZwGjG0=
'/*!*/;
# at 123
#170412 12:05:32 server id 1  end_log_pos 154 CRC32 0x17f50164  Previous-GTIDs
# [empty]
# at 154
#170412 12:05:59 server id 1  end_log_pos 219 CRC32 0x4ba5a976  Anonymous_GTID  last_committed=0        sequence_number=1
SET @@SESSION.GTID_NEXT= 'ANONYMOUS'/*!*/;
# at 219
#170412 12:05:59 server id 1  end_log_pos 310 CRC32 0x5b66ae13  Query   thread_id=3     exec_time=0     error_code=0
SET TIMESTAMP=1491969959/*!*/;
SET @@session.pseudo_thread_id=3/*!*/;
SET @@session.foreign_key_checks=1, @@session.sql_auto_is_null=0, @@session.unique_checks=1, @@session.autocommit=1/*!*/;
SET @@session.sql_mode=1436549152/*!*/;
SET @@session.auto_increment_increment=1, @@session.auto_increment_offset=1/*!*/;
/*!\C utf8 *//*!*/;
SET @@session.character_set_client=33,@@session.collation_connection=33,@@session.collation_server=8/*!*/;
SET @@session.lc_time_names=0/*!*/;
SET @@session.collation_database=DEFAULT/*!*/;
CREATE DATABASE db1
/*!*/;
# at 310
#170412 12:06:23 server id 1  end_log_pos 375 CRC32 0x2967cc28  Anonymous_GTID  last_committed=1        sequence_number=2
SET @@SESSION.GTID_NEXT= 'ANONYMOUS'/*!*/;
# at 375
#170412 12:06:23 server id 1  end_log_pos 502 CRC32 0x5de09aae  Query   thread_id=3     exec_time=0     error_code=0
use `db1`/*!*/;
SET TIMESTAMP=1491969983/*!*/;
CREATE TABLE tb1(
id int(4) NOT NULL,name varchar(24)
)
/*!*/;
# at 502
#170412 12:06:55 server id 1  end_log_pos 567 CRC32 0x0b8cd418  Anonymous_GTID  last_committed=2        sequence_number=3
SET @@SESSION.GTID_NEXT= 'ANONYMOUS'/*!*/;
# at 567
#170412 12:06:55 server id 1  end_log_pos 644 CRC32 0x7e8f2fa0  Query   thread_id=3     exec_time=0     error_code=0
SET TIMESTAMP=1491970015/*!*/;
BEGIN
/*!*/;
# at 644
#170412 12:06:55 server id 1  end_log_pos 772 CRC32 0x4e3f728e  Query   thread_id=3     exec_time=0     error_code=0                            //插入表记录的起始时间点 
SET TIMESTAMP=1491970015/*!*/;
INSERT INTO tb1 VALUES(1,'Jack'),(2,'Kenthy'), (3,'Bob')
/*!*/;
# at 772
#170412 12:06:55 server id 1  end_log_pos 803 CRC32 0x6138b21f  Xid = 10
                                                      //确认事务的时间点 
COMMIT/*!*/;
# at 803
#170412 12:07:24 server id 1  end_log_pos 868 CRC32 0xbef3f472  Anonymous_GTID  last_committed=3        sequence_number=4
SET @@SESSION.GTID_NEXT= 'ANONYMOUS'/*!*/;
# at 868
#170412 12:07:24 server id 1  end_log_pos 945 CRC32 0x5684e92c  Query   thread_id=3     exec_time=0     error_code=0
SET TIMESTAMP=1491970044/*!*/;
BEGIN
/*!*/;
# at 945
#170412 12:07:24 server id 1  end_log_pos 1032 CRC32 0x4c1c75fc         Query   thread_id=3     exec_time=0     error_code=0            //删除表记录的时间点
SET TIMESTAMP=1491970044/*!*/;
DELETE FROM tb1
/*!*/;
# at 1032
#170412 12:07:24 server id 1  end_log_pos 1063 CRC32 0xccf549b2         Xid = 12
COMMIT/*!*/;
SET @@SESSION.GTID_NEXT= 'AUTOMATIC' /* added by mysqlbinlog */ /*!*/;
DELIMITER ;
# End of log file
/*!50003 SET COMPLETION_TYPE=@OLD_COMPLETION_TYPE*/;
/*!50530 SET @@SESSION.PSEUDO_SLAVE_MODE=0*/;

2) 执行指定Pos节点范围内的sql命令恢复数据

根据上述日志分析,只要恢复从2014.01.12 20:12:14到2014.01.12 20:13:50之间的操作即可。可通过mysqlbinlog指定时间范围输出,结合管道交给msyql命令执行导入重做:

[root@dbsvr1 ~]# mysqlbinlog \
    --start-datetime="2017-04-12 12:06:55" \ 
    --stop-datetime="2017-04-12 12:07:23" \
    /var/lib/mysql/mysql-bin.000002 | mysql -u root -p
Enter password:  								   //验证口令

3)确认恢复结果

mysql> SELECT * FROM db1.tb1;
+----+--------+
| id | name   |
+----+--------+
|  1 | Jack   |
|  2 | Kenthy |
|  3 | Bob    |
+----+--------+
3 rows in set (0.00 sec)