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NSD RDBMS1 DAY02

  1. 案例1:约束条件
  2. 案例2:修改表结构
  3. 案例3:index 普通索引
  4. 案例4:primary key 主键
  5. 案例5:foreign key 外键

1 案例1:约束条件

1.1 问题

具体要求如下:

图-1

1.2 步骤

实现此案例需要按照如下步骤进行。

步骤一:设置约束

1)在db2库里创建t2表时设置字段约束条件

mysql>

mysql> create database db2; //建库
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)

mysql> use  db2; //切换库
Database changed
mysql> create table  t2 (  //建表
    -> class   char(9),
    -> name    char(10) not null  ,
    -> age     tinyint  not null default  19 ,
    -> likes   set("a","b","c","d")  default  "a,b"
    -> );
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.05 sec)





mysql> desc t2; //查看表结构
+-------+----------------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| Field | Type                 | Null | Key | Default | Extra |
+-------+----------------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| class | char(9)              | YES  |     | NULL    |       |
| name  | char(10)             | NO   |     | NULL    |       |
| age   | tinyint(4)           | NO   |     | 19      |       |
| likes | set('a','b','c','d') | YES  |     | a,b     |       |
+-------+----------------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
4 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql>

mysql> insert into  t2  values (null,"bob",29,"c,d");
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.05 sec)

mysql> insert into  t2(class,name) values ("nsd1902","tom");
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.05 sec)

mysql> insert into  t2  values (null,null,null,null);
ERROR 1048 (23000): Column 'name' cannot be null  //不允许赋null值
MariaDB [db2]>

MariaDB [db2]> select  * from db2.t1;  //查看记录
+---------+------+-----+-------+
| class   | name | age | likes |
+---------+------+-----+-------+
| NULL    | bob  |  29 | c,d   |
| nsd1902 | tom  |  19 | a,b   |
+---------+------+-----+-------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql>

2 案例2:修改表结构

2.1 问题

具体要求如下:

2.2 步骤

实现此案例需要按照如下步骤进行。

步骤一:添加字段

1)在studb库下创建tea6表

Mysql> create database studb;
mysql> CREATE TABLE studb.tea6(
-> id int(4) ,
    -> name varchar(4) NOT NULL,
    -> age int(2) NOT NULL
    -> );
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.34 sec)
mysql>

2)为tea6表添加一个address字段

mysql> DESC tea6;
+-------+------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| Field | Type       | Null | Key | Default | Extra |
+-------+------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| id    | int(4)     |  YES  |      | NULL    |       |
| name  | varchar(4) | NO   |     | NULL    |       |
| age   | int(2)     | NO   |     | NULL    |       |
+-------+------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
3 rows in set (0.00 sec)

添加address字段:

mysql> ALTER TABLE tea6 ADD address varchar(48);
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.84 sec)
Records: 0  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0

添加后(默认作为最后一个字段):

mysql> DESC tea6;
+---------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| Field   | Type        | Null | Key | Default | Extra |
+---------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| id      | int(4)      | YES   |   | NULL    |       |
| name    | varchar(4)  | NO   |     | NULL    |       |
| age     | int(2)      | NO   |     | NULL    |       |
| address | varchar(48) | YES  |     | NULL    |       |
+---------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
4 rows in set (0.00 sec)

3)在tea6表的age列之后添加一个gender字段

添加操作:

mysql> ALTER TABLE tea6 ADD gender enum('boy','girl') AFTER age;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.59 sec)
Records: 0  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0

确认添加结果:

mysql> DESC tea6;
+---------+--------------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| Field   | Type               | Null | Key | Default | Extra |
+---------+--------------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| id      | int(4)             |YES   |  | NULL    |       |
| name    | varchar(4)         | NO   |     | NULL    |       |
| age     | int(2)             | NO   |     | NULL    |       |
| gender  | enum('boy','girl') | YES  |     | NULL    |       |
| address | varchar(48)        | YES  |     | NULL    |       |
+---------+--------------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
5 rows in set (0.00 sec)

步骤二:修改字段名和字段类型

将tea6表的gender字段改名为sex,并添加非空约束

修改操作:

mysql> ALTER TABLE tea6 CHANGE gender
    -> sex enum('boy','girl') NOT NULL;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.08 sec)
Records: 0  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0

确认修改结果:

mysql> DESC tea6;
+---------+--------------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| Field   | Type               | Null | Key | Default | Extra |
+---------+--------------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| id      | int(4)             | YES   |   | NULL    |       |
| name    | varchar(4)         | NO   |     | NULL    |       |
| age     | int(2)             | NO   |     | NULL    |       |
| sex     | enum('boy','girl') | NO   |     | NULL    |       |
| address | varchar(48)        | YES  |     | NULL    |       |
+---------+--------------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
5 rows in set (0.00 sec)

步骤三:删除字段

删除tea6表中名为sex的字段:

mysql> ALTER TABLE tea6 DROP sex;                             //删除操作
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.52 sec)
Records: 0  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0

mysql> DESC tea6;  										//确认删除结果
+---------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| Field   | Type        | Null | Key | Default | Extra |
+---------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| id      | int(4)      | YES   |      | NULL    |       |
| name    | varchar(4)  | NO   |     | NULL    |       |
| age     | int(2)      | NO   |     | NULL    |       |
| address | varchar(48) | YES  |     | NULL    |       |
+---------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
4 rows in set (0.00 sec)

3 案例3:index 普通索引

3.1 问题

具体要求如下:

3.2 步骤

实现此案例需要按照如下步骤进行。

步骤一:索引的创建与删除

1)创建表的时候指定INDEX索引字段

创建库home:

mysql> create database home;
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)

允许有多个INDEX索引字段。比如,以下操作在home库中创建了tea4表,将其中的id、name作为索引字段:

mysql> USE home;
Database changed
mysql> CREATE TABLE tea4(
    -> id char(6) NOT NULL,
    -> name varchar(6) NOT NULL,
    -> age int(3) NOT NULL,
    -> gender ENUM('boy','girl') DEFAULT 'boy',
    -> INDEX(id),INDEX(name)
    -> );
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.59 sec)

查看新建tea4表的字段结构,可以发现两个非空索引字段的KEY标志为MUL:

mysql> DESC tea4;
+--------+--------------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| Field  | Type               | Null | Key | Default | Extra |
+--------+--------------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| id     | char(6)            | NO   | MUL | NULL    |       |
| name   | varchar(6)         | NO   | MUL | NULL    |       |
| age    | int(3)             | NO   |     | NULL    |       |
| gender | enum('boy','girl') | YES  |     | boy     |       |
+--------+--------------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
4 rows in set (0.00 sec)

2)删除现有表的某个INDEX索引字段

比如,删除tea4表中名称为named的INDEX索引字段:

mysql> drop INDEX name ON tea4;                  //删除name字段的索引
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.18 sec)
Records: 0  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0

mysql> DESC tea4;                                      //确认删除结果
+--------+--------------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| Field  | Type               | Null | Key | Default | Extra |
+--------+--------------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| id     | char(6)            | NO   | MUL | NULL    |       |
| name   | varchar(6)         | NO   |     | NULL    |       |
| age    | int(3)             | NO   |     | NULL    |       |
| gender | enum('boy','girl') | YES  |     | boy     |       |
+--------+--------------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
4 rows in set (0.00 sec)

3)在已有的某个表中设置INDEX索引字段

比如,针对tea4表的age字段建立索引,名称为 nianling:

mysql> CREATE INDEX nianling ON tea4(age);  	//针对指定字段创建索引
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.62 sec)
Records: 0  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0

mysql> DESC tea4;  								//确认创建结果
+--------+--------------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| Field  | Type               | Null | Key | Default | Extra |
+--------+--------------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| id     | char(6)            | NO   | MUL | NULL    |       |
| name   | varchar(6)         | NO   |     | NULL    |       |
| age    | int(3)             | NO   | MUL | NULL    |       |
| gender | enum('boy','girl') | YES  |     | boy     |       |
+--------+--------------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
4 rows in set (0.00 sec)

4)查看指定表的索引信息

使用SHOW INDEX 指令:

mysql> SHOW INDEX FROM tea4\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
        Table: tea4
   Non_unique: 1
     Key_name: id
 Seq_in_index: 1
  Column_name: id
    Collation: A
  Cardinality: 0
     Sub_part: NULL
       Packed: NULL
         Null: 
   Index_type: BTREE                          //使用B树算法
      Comment: 
Index_comment: 
*************************** 2. row ***************************
        Table: tea4
   Non_unique: 1
     Key_name: nianling                       //索引名称
 Seq_in_index: 1
  Column_name: age                            //字段名称
    Collation: A
  Cardinality: 0
     Sub_part: NULL
       Packed: NULL
         Null: 
   Index_type: BTREE
      Comment: 
Index_comment: 
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.30 sec)
Mysql>
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.47 sec)
Records: 0  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0


4 案例4:primary key 主键

4.1 问题

具体要求如下:

4.2 步骤

实现此案例需要按照如下步骤进行。

步骤一:练习主键的使用

1)建表时设置PRIMARY KEY主键索引

Mysql> create  database db2;
mysql> CREATE TABLE db2.biao01(
    -> id int(4) PRIMARY KEY,  					//直接在字段定义时约束
    -> name varchar(8)
    -> );
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.19 sec)

或者:

mysql> CREATE TABLE db2.biao02(
    -> id int(4),
    -> name varchar(8),
    -> PRIMARY KEY(id)  							//所有字段定义完,最后指定
    -> );
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.17 sec)

在建表的时候,如果主键字段为int类型,还可以为其设置AUTO_INCREMENT自增属性,这样当添加新的表记录时,此字段的值会自动从1开始逐个增加,无需手动指定。比如,新建一个tea6表,将id列作为自增的主键字段:

mysql> CREATE TABLE db2.tea6(
    -> id int(4) AUTO_INCREMENT,
    -> name varchar(4) NOT NULL,
    -> age int(2) NOT NULL,
    -> PRIMARY KEY(id)
    -> );
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.29 sec)

2)删除现有表的PRIMARY KEY主键索引

如果要移除某个表的PRIMARY KEY约束,需要通过ALTER TABLE指令修改。比如,以下操作将清除biao01表的主键索引。

清除前(主键为id):

mysql> DESC db2.biao01;
+-------+------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| Field | Type       | Null | Key | Default | Extra |
+-------+------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| id    | int(4)     | NO   | PRI | NULL    |       |
| name  | varchar(8) | YES  |     | NULL    |       |
+-------+------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)

清除操作:

mysql> ALTER TABLE db2.biao01 DROP PRIMARY KEY;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.49 sec)
Records: 0  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0

清除后(无主键):

mysql> DESC db2.biao01;
+-------+------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| Field | Type       | Null | Key | Default | Extra |
+-------+------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| id    | int(4)     | NO   |     | NULL    |       |
| name  | varchar(8) | YES  |     | NULL    |       |
+-------+------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)

当尝试删除tea6表的主键时,会出现异常:

mysql> ALTER TABLE tea6 DROP PRIMARY KEY;
ERROR 1075 (42000): Incorrect table definition; there can be only one auto column and it must be defined as a key

这是因为tea6表的主键字段id具有AUTO_INCREMNET自增属性,提示这种字段必须作为主键存在,因此若要清除此主键必须先清除自增属性——修改id列的字段定义:

mysql> ALTER TABLE tea6 MODIFY id int(4) NOT NULL;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.75 sec)
Records: 0  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0

然后再清除主键属性就OK了:

mysql> ALTER TABLE tea6 DROP PRIMARY KEY;  				//清除主键
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.39 sec)
Records: 0  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0

mysql> desc tea6;                                         //确认清除结果
+-------+------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| Field | Type       | Null | Key | Default | Extra |
+-------+------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| id    | int(4)     | NO   |     | NULL    |       |
| name  | varchar(4) | NO   |     | NULL    |       |
| age   | int(2)     | NO   |     | NULL    |       |
+-------+------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
3 rows in set (0.01 sec)

3)为现有表添加PRIMARY KEY主键索引

重新为tea6表指定主键字段,仍然使用id列:

mysql> ALTER TABLE tea6 ADD PRIMARY KEY(id);  			//设置主键字段
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.35 sec)
Records: 0  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0

mysql> DESC tea6;  										//确认设置结果
+-------+------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| Field | Type       | Null | Key | Default | Extra |
+-------+------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| id    | int(4)     | NO   | PRI | NULL    |       |
| name  | varchar(4) | NO   |     | NULL    |       |
| age   | int(2)     | NO   |     | NULL    |       |
+-------+------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
3 rows in set (0.00 sec)

4)建表时创建复合主键

mysql>
mysql> create table  db2.t6(
    -> class char(7),
    -> name  char(15),
    -> pay   enum("yes","no") default "no",
    -> primary key(class,name,pay)  //指定多个字段一起做主键
    -> );
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.04 sec)

mysql> desc db2.t6;
+-------+------------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| Field | Type             | Null | Key | Default | Extra |
+-------+------------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| class | char(7)          | NO   | PRI |         |       |
| name  | char(15)         | NO   | PRI |         |       |
| pay   | enum('yes','no') | NO   | PRI | no      |       |
+-------+------------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
3 rows in set (0.01 sec)

mysql>

5 案例5:foreign key 外键

5.1 问题

具体要求如下:

表-1 员工表yg的数据

表-2 工资表gz的数据

步骤一:创建外键

1)创建yg表,用来记录员工工号、姓名,其中yg_id列作为主键,并设置自增属性

mysql> CREATE TABLE yg(
    -> yg_id int primary key AUTO_INCREMENT,
    -> name char(16)
    -> )engine=innodb;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.15 sec)
Mysql>

2)创建gz表,用来记录员工的工资信息

其中gz_id需要参考员工工号,即gz表的gz_id字段设为外键,将yg表的yg_id字段作为参考键:

mysql> CREATE TABLE gz(
    -> gz_id  int,
    -> name char(16) ,
    -> gz float(7,2) ,
    -> FOREIGN KEY(gz_id) REFERENCES yg(yg_id)  //创建外键
    -> ON UPDATE CASCADE ON DELETE CASCADE //同步更新、同步删除
    -> )engine=innodb;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.23 sec)
Mysql>

3)为yg表添加2条员工信息记录

因yg_id有AUTO_INCREMENT属性,会自动填充,所以只要为name列赋值就可以了。

插入表记录可使用INSERT指令,这里先执行下列操作,具体在下一章学习:

mysql> INSERT INTO yg(name) VALUES('Jerry'),('Tom');
Query OK, 2 rows affected (0.16 sec)
Records: 2  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0

确认yg表的数据记录:

mysql> SELECT * FROM yg;
+-------+-------+
| yg_id | name  |
+-------+-------+
|     1 | Jerry |
|     2 | Tom   |
+-------+-------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)

4)为gz表添加2条工资信息记录

同上,数据参考图-2,插入相应的工资记录(gz_id字段未指定默认值,也未设置自增属性,所以需要手动赋值):

mysql> INSERT INTO gz(gz_id,name,gz)
    -> VALUES(1,'Jerry',12000),(2,'Tom',8000)
    -> ;
Query OK, 2 rows affected (0.06 sec)
Records: 2  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0

确认gz表的数据记录:

mysql> SELECT * FROM gz;
+-------+-------+----------+
| gz_id | name  | gz       |
+-------+-------+----------+
|     1 | Jerry | 12000.00 |
|     2 | Tom   |  8000.00 |
+-------+-------+----------+
2 rows in set (0.05 sec)

5)验证表记录的UPDATE更新联动

将yg表中Jerry用户的yg_id修改为1234:

mysql> update yg SET yg_id=1234 WHERE name='Jerry';
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.05 sec)
Rows matched: 1  Changed: 1  Warnings: 0

确认修改结果:

mysql> SELECT * FROM yg;
+-------+-------+
| yg_id | name  |
+-------+-------+
|     2 | Tom   |
|  1234 | Jerry |
+-------+-------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)

同时也会发现,gz表中Jerry用户的gz_id也跟着变了:

mysql> SELECT * FROM gz;
+-------+-------+----------+
| gz_id | name  | gz       |
+-------+-------+----------+
|  1234 | Jerry | 12000.00 |
|     2 | Tom   |  8000.00 |
+-------+-------+----------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)

6)验证表记录的DELETE删除联动

删除yg表中用户Jerry的记录:

mysql> DELETE FROM yg WHERE name='Jerry';
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.05 sec)

确认删除结果:

mysql> SELECT * FROM yg;
+-------+------+
| yg_id | name |
+-------+------+
|     2 | Tom  |
+-------+------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

查看gz表中的变化(Jerry的记录也没了):

mysql> SELECT * FROM gz;
+-------+------+---------+
| gz_id | name | gz      |
+-------+------+---------+
|     2 | Tom  | 8000.00 |
+-------+------+---------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

7)删除指定表的外键约束

先通过SHOW指令获取表格的外键约束名称:

mysql> SHOW CREATE TABLE gz\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
       Table: gz
Create Table: CREATE TABLE `gz` (
  `gz_id` int(4) NOT NULL,
  `name` char(16) NOT NULL,
  `gz` float(7,2) NOT NULL DEFAULT '0.00',
  KEY `name` (`name`),
  KEY `gz_id` (`gz_id`),
  CONSTRAINT `gz_ibfk_1` FOREIGN KEY (`gz_id`) REFERENCES `yg` (`yg_id`) ON DELETE CASCADE ON UPDATE CASCADE
) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

其中gz_ibfk_1即删除外键约束时要用到的名称。

删除操作:

mysql> ALTER TABLE gz DROP FOREIGN KEY gz_ibfk_1;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec)
Records: 0  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0

确认删除结果:

mysql> SHOW CREATE TABLE gz\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
       Table: gz
Create Table: CREATE TABLE `gz` (
  `gz_id` int(4) NOT NULL,
  `name` char(16) NOT NULL,
  `gz` float(7,2) NOT NULL DEFAULT '0.00',
  KEY `name` (`name`),
  KEY `gz_id` (`gz_id`)
) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8
1 row in set (0.00 sec)